# Lithium Niobate

## Fabrication of domain inverted structures by direct electron bombardment in LiNbO$_3$ crystals and its characterization

Direct electron beam irradiation without static bias has been used to produce stable structures of ferroelectric domain inversion in LiNbO$_3$ and Nd$^{3+}$ doped LiNbO$_3$ single crystals. Large size cylinder-shaped domain-inverted regions, around …

## Optical investigation of the propagation of the amorphous--crystalline boundary in ion-beam irradiated LiNbO$_3$

The effects of high-energy silicon (5 MeV, 7.5 MeV and 30 MeV) irradiations have been optically investigated by the dark-mode m-lines technique. In all cases, an optically isotropic homogeneous layer is created after a certain critical fluence that …

## Compositional Study of LiNbO$_3$ Thin Films Grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy

Lithium niobate (LN) films have been obtained on pure congruent single-domain LN substrates by the liquid phase epitaxy technique. Li-rich flux of LiVO$_3$ has been used. The optimum temperature for the film preparation has been found to be 860°C. …

## Electron-Phonon Coupling in Yb$^{3+}$:LiNbO$_3$ Laser Crystal

Electron-phonon coupling in Yb$^{3+}$:LiNbO$_3$ is studied by comparing the optical (absorption and emission) low-temperature spectra with the room temperature Raman spectrum of undoped LiNbO$_3$. As a result, the whole vibrational structure of the …

## Incorporation of vanadium in liquid phase epitaxy films of LiNbO$_3$

Second harmonic generation in Lithium Niobate (LN) thin films has been widely studied. This interest is extended to waveguides obtained by the Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) technique due to the high perfection and crystallinity of the films. However the …

## Structure of High Index Proton Exchange LiNbO$_3$ Waveguides with Undegraded Nonlinear Optical Coefficients

A structural study is presented on proton exchanged LiNbO$_3$ waveguides prepared in benzoic acid vapor which, for $z$-cut substrates, were previously reported to simultaneously exhibit high index jump, very low losses, and undegraded nonlinear …