Self-Activated Nd$^{3+}$:Ba$_2$NaNb$_5$O$_{12}$ optical superlattices: Micro-characterization and noncollinear laser light generation


Czochralsky grown Nd$^{3+}$-ion doped barium sodium niobate (Ba$_2$NaNb$5$O${12}$, “banana”) optical super-lattices have been characterized by a combination of chemical etching, optical microscopy, micro-Raman and micro-photoluminescence experiments. The presence of ferroelectric domains, induced during growth process, is accompanied by a periodic modulation of Nd$^{3+}$-ion concentration as well as by a small lattice distortion. When Nd$^{3+}$-ion laser action at ≈1.06 μm is achieved under 0.808 μm laser diode pumping, the singularities of refractive index caused by opposed ferroelectric domains lead to non-collinear intra-cavity propagation.

Opt. Commun. 262, 220–223 (2006)